Themes, Symbols, & Motifs
Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
“The course of true love never did run smooth,” comments Lysander, articulating one of A Midsummer Night’s
Dream’s most important themes—that of the difficulty of love (I.i.134). Though most of the conflict in the play
stems from the troubles of romance, and though the play involves a number of romantic elements, it is not truly a love story;
it distances the audience from the emotions of the characters in order to poke fun at the torments and afflictions that those
in love suffer. The tone of the play is so lighthearted that the audience never doubts that things will end happily, and it
is therefore free to enjoy the comedy without being caught up in the tension of an uncertain outcome.
The theme of love’s difficulty is often explored through the motif of love out of balance—that is, romantic
situations in which a disparity or inequality interferes with the harmony of a relationship. The prime instance of this imbalance
is the asymmetrical love among the four young Athenians: Hermia loves Lysander, Lysander loves Hermia, Helena loves Demetrius,
and Demetrius loves Hermia instead of Helena—a simple numeric imbalance in which two men love the same woman, leaving
one woman with too many suitors and one with too few. The play has strong potential for a traditional outcome, and the plot
is in many ways based on a quest for internal balance; that is, when the lovers’ tangle resolves itself into symmetrical
pairings, the traditional happy ending will have been achieved. Somewhat similarly, in the relationship between Titania and
Oberon, an imbalance arises out of the fact that Oberon’s coveting of Titania’s Indian boy outweighs his love
for her. Later, Titania’s passion for the ass-headed Bottom represents an imbalance of appearance and nature: Titania
is beautiful and graceful, while Bottom is clumsy and grotesque.
The fairies’ magic, which brings about many of the most bizarre and hilarious situations in the play, is another
element central to the fantastic atmosphere of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Shakespeare uses magic both to embody the
almost supernatural power of love (symbolized by the love potion) and to create a surreal world. Although the misuse of magic
causes chaos, as when Puck mistakenly applies the love potion to Lysander’s eyelids, magic ultimately resolves the play’s
tensions by restoring love to balance among the quartet of Athenian youths. Additionally, the ease with which Puck uses magic
to his own ends, as when he reshapes Bottom’s head into that of an ass and recreates the voices of Lysander and Demetrius,
stands in contrast to the laboriousness and gracelessness of the craftsmen’s attempt to stage their play.
As the title suggests, dreams are an important theme in A Midsummer Night’s Dream; they are linked to the bizarre,
magical mishaps in the forest. Hippolyta’s first words in the play evidence the prevalence of dreams (“Four days
will quickly steep themselves in night, / Four nights will quickly dream away the time”), and various characters mention
dreams throughout (I.i.7–8). The theme of dreaming recurs predominantly when characters attempt to explain bizarre events
in which these characters are involved: “I have had a dream, past the wit of man to say what / dream it was. Man is
but an ass if he go about t’expound this dream,” Bottom says, unable to fathom the magical happenings that have
affected him as anything but the result of slumber.
Shakespeare is also interested in the actual workings of dreams, in how events occur without explanation, time loses
its normal sense of flow, and the impossible occurs as a matter of course; he seeks to recreate this environment in the play
through the intervention of the fairies in the magical forest. At the end of the play, Puck extends the idea of dreams to
the audience members themselves, saying that, if they have been offended by the play, they should remember it as nothing more
than a dream. This sense of illusion and gauzy fragility is crucial to the atmosphere of A Midsummer Night’s Dream,
as it helps render the play a fantastical experience rather than a heavy drama
Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s
The idea of contrast is the basic building block of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The entire play is constructed
around groups of opposites and doubles. Nearly every characteristic presented in the play has an opposite: Helena is tall, Hermia is short;
Puck plays pranks, Bottom is the victim of pranks; Titania is beautiful, Bottom is grotesque. Further, the three main groups
of characters (who are developed from sources as varied as Greek mythology, English folklore, and classical literature) are
designed to contrast powerfully with one another: the fairies are graceful and magical, while the craftsmen are clumsy and
earthy; the craftsmen are merry, while the lovers are overly serious. Contrast serves as the defining visual characteristic
of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, with the play’s most indelible image being that of the beautiful, delicate Titania
weaving flowers into the hair of the ass-headed Bottom. It seems impossible to imagine two figures less compatible with each
other. The juxtaposition of extraordinary differences is the most important characteristic of the play’s surreal atmosphere
and is thus perhaps the play’s central motif; there is no scene in which extraordinary contrast is not present.
Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.
Theseus and Hippolyta
Theseus and Hippolyta bookend A Midsummer Night’s Dream, appearing in the daylight at both the beginning and
the end of the play’s main action. They disappear, however, for the duration of the action, leaving in the middle of
Act I, scene i and not reappearing until Act IV, as the sun is coming up to end the magical night in the forest. Shakespeare
uses Theseus and Hippolyta, the ruler of Athens and his warrior bride, to represent order and stability, to contrast with the
uncertainty, instability, and darkness of most of the play. Whereas an important element of the dream realm is that one is
not in control of one’s environment, Theseus and Hippolyta are always entirely in control of theirs. Their reappearance
in the daylight of Act IV to hear Theseus’s hounds signifies the end of the dream state of the previous night and a
return to rationality.
The Love Potion
The love potion is made from the juice of a flower that was struck with one of Cupid’s misfired arrows; it
is used by the fairies to wreak romantic havoc throughout Acts II, III, and IV. Because the meddling fairies are careless
with the love potion, the situation of the young Athenian lovers becomes increasingly chaotic and confusing (Demetrius and
Lysander are magically compelled to transfer their love from Hermia to Helena), and Titania
is hilariously humiliated (she is magically compelled to fall deeply in love with the ass-headed Bottom). The love potion
thus becomes a symbol of the unreasoning, fickle, erratic, and undeniably powerful nature of love, which can lead to inexplicable
and bizarre behavior and cannot be resisted.
The Craftsmen’s Play
The play-within-a-play that takes up most of Act V, scene i is used to represent, in condensed form, many of the important
ideas and themes of the main plot. Because the craftsmen are such bumbling actors, their performance satirizes the melodramatic
Athenian lovers and gives the play a purely joyful, comedic ending. Pyramus and Thisbe face parental disapproval in the play-within-a-play,
just as Hermia and Lysander do; the theme of romantic confusion enhanced by the darkness of night is rehashed, as Pyramus
mistakenly believes that Thisbe has been killed by the lion, just as the Athenian lovers experience intense misery because
of the mix-ups caused by the fairies’ meddling. The craftsmen’s play is, therefore, a kind of symbol for A Midsummer
Night’s Dream itself: a story involving powerful emotions that is made hilarious by its comical presentation.