of Text Forms
- Procedural Texts
The purpose is to tell the reader
how to do or make something.
The information is presented in a
logical sequence of events which is broken up into small sequenced steps. These texts are usually written in the present tense.
The most common example of a procedural
text is a recipe.
Types of Procedural Texts
There are different procedural texts
for different purposes:-
- Texts that
explain how something works or how to use instruction /operation manuals eg how to use the video, the computer, the tape recorder,
the photocopier, the fax.
- Texts that
instruct how to do a particular activity eg recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules.
- Texts that
deal with human behaviour eg how to live happily, how to succeed.
- Each type
of procedural text has a format.
usually have the information presented in at least two basic groups: ingredients and method.
- Games instructions
usually include instructions on how to play, rules of the game, method of scoring, and the number of players.
experiments usually include the purpose of the experiment, equipment, procedure, observations and conclusion.
need to be clear, logical and easy to follow eg
- the goal
is clearly stated
- the materials
are listed in order of use
- the layout
of the text is easy to understand and follow (steps are numbered or listed)
- is chronological.
- is written
in the simple present tense (do this, do that)
on generalised people rather than individuals (first you take, rather than first I take)
- the reader
is often referred to in a general way, ie. pronouns (you or one)
- action verbs (imperative verbs), (cut, fold, twist, hold etc)
present tense (you cut, you fold, you mix)
words to do with time (first, when, then) are used to connect the text
information on how (carefully, with the scissors); where (from the top); when (after it has set)
factual description (shape, size, colour, amount)
There are a lot of times when you have to write out directions
of how to do something. Sometimes you have to explain how something works, how to make something, or how to get from one place
Here’s a way to help you write an explanation.
a list of all the steps – don’t go into a lot of detail, just enough that you remember what to write about.
sure all of the steps are in the right order.
you’re giving directions to make something, make sure you give a list that tells all the stuff you’ll need.
your explanation with a good sentence that explains what you’re trying to do.
all the directions as briefly and clearly as possible. Use words like first, second, and next to help the reader understand.
what you’ve written, and then try to follow the directions yourself. Make any changes that you might have missed the
someone else try to follow your directions. If they don’t understand, write it more clearly so they do.
illustrations if they help make the written words more clear.